Study Guide (go by the chapters assigned by your instructor)
(Different lecture sections break up the tests differently)
Click here to go to Class Videos (best way to prepare is to watch the videos)

ALWAYS use the videos if you missed a class AND for Exam reviews

Although the vocabulary is very important, you should
concentrate on the 'Be able to:' sections first!

Chapter 1 "Here & Now" An Overview of the Universe

Reading Hints = read all.
Class Lecture (Videos) Hints = Much more information provided in class lecture/videos.

Be able to define:
North Star (Polaris)
Powers of 10
Scientific Notation

Scientific Method
Solar System
Planet
Days of the week
Star
Balances within a star
Light Year
Astronomical Unit
Milky Way
Milky Way Galaxy
Andromeda Galaxy
Galaxy
Quasar
Sizes and Distances in the Universe
Age of the solar system
Age of the universe


Be able to:

- explain the idea of the Scientific Method
      (A triangle of connections was used in class)
- explain why astrology is not a science.
- work your way from the Earth to Quasars relating names of objects, sizes,  and distances in the universe from us.

Chapter 2 - Patterns & Cycles

Reading Hints = Skip 2.1a,b,& c.  Read all rest of the chapter
Class Lecture (Videos) Hints = Much more detailed information provided in class lecture/videos.

Be able to define:
celestial sphere
magnitude
rotation
revolution
ecliptic
zodiac
tilt of the Earth
seasons
spring equinox
summer solstice
autumn equinox
winter solstice
astrology
causes of eclipses
total solar eclipse
partial solar eclipse
annular solar eclipse
lunar eclipse
terminator
umbra
penumbra
line of nodes
precession
node


Be able to:
- describe the concept of the celestial sphere and the conventions of angular
measurement that enable us to locate objects in the sky.
- account for the apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars in terms of the actual motions of Earth and the Moon.
- show how the relative motions of Earth, the Sun, and the Moon lead to eclipses.
- explain the causes of the seasons.

- using New/First quarter/full, be able to FIGURE rising, setting, and highest in the sky times for these phases.
- explain all the circumstances for a lunar eclipse
- explain all the circumstances for a solar eclipse
- explain all the circumstances for an annular eclipse
- explain the difference you would see when in an umbral shadow as compared to a penumbral shadow for a lunar eclipse
- explain the significance of the rotation and revolution of the Earth

Be able to list:
- the date marking the first day of each season
- the Sun's location at noon on each of those dates
- the phases of the Moon

Chapter 3 - The Origin of Modern Astronomy

Reading Hints = Read all of the chapter
Class Lecture (Videos) Hints = More detailed information provided in class lecture/videos.

Be able to define:
Aristotle
parallax
Ptolemy
Ptolemaic Theory = Geocentric Theory
retrograde motion
Copernicus
Tycho Brahe
Kepler
ellipses
Kepler‚€™s First Law
Kepler‚€™s Second Law
Kepler‚€™s Third Law
astronomical unit
Galileo
Newton
Newton‚€™s First Law
Newton‚€™s Second Law
Newtons Third Law

Orbits
Newton‚€™s Law of Universal Gravitation


Be able to:

- explain how the observed motions of the planets led to our modern explanations of planetary motions.
- explain view of a Sun-centered solar system.
- outline the major contributions of Galileo and Kepler to the development of our understanding of the solar system.
- state Kepler‚€™s First Law and explain an example of its use in the solar system
- state Kepler‚€™s Second Law and explain an example of its use in the solar system
- state Kepler‚€™s Third Law and explain an example of its use in the solar system
- state Newton's First Law of Motion and explain an example of its use
- state Newton's Second Law of Motion and explain an example of its use
- state Newton's Third Law of Motion and explain an example of its use

- explain why astronauts just 150 miles above the Earth are falling without hitting the Earth. (What is an orbit?)
- state Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation and explain an example of its use
- explain how the latter permits us to measure the masses of astronomical bodies
- explain the causes of tides, be able to predict the timing of times, and how the Moon's phases change tides

 

Chapter 4 - Telescopes and Light

Reading Hints = Section 4.1b is MOST important section in this chapter and will be used the remainder of the semester.  We will NOT be using Angstroms.
4.2a Read (covered in video)  Reminder of Ch. 4 in the textbook is MORE detailed than the video.  You are responsible for the material in the video mainly.
 
Class Lecture (Videos) Hints = This time the video information rules.

Be able to define:
wavelength
visible light
ultraviolet radiation
infrared radiation
electromagnetic radiation
speed of light
photon
spectrum
magnification
light-gathering power
refractor
reflector

eyepiece
primary lens
primary mirror
seeing
CCD
pixel

adaptive optics

Be able to:
- discuss the nature of electromagnetic radiation, and tell how that radiation transfers energy and information through interstellar space
- explain why very large telescopes are needed for most astronomical studies
- specify the advantages of reflecting telescopes for astronomical use
- describe how Earth's atmosphere affects astronomical observations
- discuss some of the current efforts to improve ground-based astronomy
- discuss the advantages and disadvantages of radio astronomy
- explain why it is important to make astronomical observations in many different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum


Be able to list:
- list the names of the types of Electromagnetic radiation in order of wavelength
- the purpose of the primary mirror or primary lens
- the purpose of the eyepiece